Definition of Terms (Listed [loosely] Alphabetically)
Antigen & Antibody: -
An antigen is a substance, usually a protein or a glycoprotein, which, when injected into a human
(or other organism) that does not have the antigen, will cause an antibody to be produced.
Antibodies are a specific type of immune-system proteins known as immunoglobulins, whose
role is to fight infections by binding themselves to antigens.
Anti-C & Anti-c -
Anti-C and anti-c are both antibodies in the Rh system in the blood. They are proteins developed just as anti-D is, through exposure & is your bodies defense mechanism
The rhesus-factor antibody, formed by rhesus-negative individuals following exposure to rhesus-positive blood. Anti-D immunoglobulin (anti-D Ig) is administered to Rh-negative women within 72 hours of giving birth to a Rh-positive child (or following miscarriage or abortion) to prevent the risk of haemolytic disease of the newborn in a subsequent child. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O62-antiD.html
Main Entry: blood·line
Function: noun : A sequence of direct ancestors especially in a pedigree; also : family, strain
Blood Bond -
The familial bond of common descent and similarly;
A link of fidelity one to the other achieved through the common and ritualistic drinking of blood.
Literally a fragment, the word in modern medical science has come to mean a replica, for example, of a group of bacteria or a macromolecule such as DNA
Clone also refers to an individual developed from a single somatic (non-germ) cell from a parent, representing an exact replica of that parent.
A clone is a group of cells derived from a single ancestral cell.
Collective Unconscious -
The collective unconscious is a part of the psyche which can be negatively distinguished from a personal unconscious by the fact that it does not, like the latter, owe its existence to personal experience and consequently is not a personal acquisition.
While the personal unconscious is made up essentially of contents which have at one time been conscious but which have disappeared from consciousness through having been forgotten or repressed, the contents of the collective unconscious have never been in consciousness, and therefore have never been individually acquired, but owe their existence exclusively to HEREDITY. (Perhaps Cellular Memory).
Whereas the personal unconscious consists for the most part of complexes, the content of the collective unconscious is made up essentially of archetypes.
One charged with the obligation of watching over, protecting and managing assigned events.
The passing on of physical or MENTAL characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
(We never hear of the mental being discussed in popular circles)
Similar in kind; related; One's family and relations; A group of persons related to another; family, tribe, or race. Relationship by birth or descent.
A set of mostly unrelated divination and/or spiritual practices or activities which appear to tap into forces that have not been explained by science, and which are not conventional practices seen in traditional religions. The word occult is derived from the Latin word occultus which means "hidden". Occult blood is a medical term which refers to blood which cannot be seen, except perhaps under a microscope. The Occult has been defined as any activity which
1. Is esoteric (employs knowledge that is not known to the general public, but which is only revealed gradually to a selected few in training), and
2. Depends upon those talents which lie beyond the five senses, and
3. Engages with the supernatural.
Pharming (fär`mĭng) -
use of genetically altered livestock, such as cows, goats, pigs, and chickens,
to produce medically useful products. In pharming, researchers first create
hybrid genes using animal DNA and the human or other gene that makes a desired
substance, such as a hormone. Employing the techniques of genetic engineering
genetic engineering, the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic
material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products.
They then introduce the hybrid genes into animal embryos, which are then re-emplaned
into foster mothers and carried to term, creating transgenic animals that
secrete human hormones or proteins, antibiotics, or other substances in their
milk, blood, semen, eggs, or the like. The material containing the secreted
substance is harvested, and the substance extracted and purified. The process
has yielded drugs, such as growth hormone and antithrombin; blood components,
such as hemoglobin; and large quantities of certain proteins needed for
Subdivision of biological classification composed of related organisms that share common characteristics and can interbreed.
Organisms are grouped into species according to their outer similarities, but more important in classifying organisms that reproduce sexually is their ability to interbreed successfully.
To be members of the same species, individuals must be able to mate and produce viable offspring.
Because genetic variations originate in individuals which then pass on their variations only within the species, it is at the species level that evolution takes place (see speciation).
The international system of binomial nomenclature assigns new species a two-part name.
Species (Definition 2 ) -
The most widely accepted definition of species is the one put forward by the Germanborn American evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr (1904-) in the 1940s.
Mayr's idea, known as the biological species concept, defines a species as a population of individual organisms capable of mating with one another and producing fertile offspring in a natural setting.
Members of two different, but closely related species in some cases can mate with one another to produce infertile offspring, the most well-known example being the mule, a sterile hybrid produced by the union of a male donkey and a female horse.
The definition of species remains challenging, with special problems raised in the area of botany. It is also sometimes possible to confuse species and race, a grouping that applies not only in the world of humans but also that of other animal and even plant species.
Race is different from species inasmuch as races are not isolated genetically from one another; in other words, there are no biological barriers to interbreeding between races.http://www.answers.com/library/Science+of+Everyday+Things-cid-77508 University of Berkeley Species Expiation Link: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/VA1BioSpeciesConcept.shtml
What is an Rh Factor?
Rh factor is also called "Rhesus factor" because it was first discovered in the blood of Rhesus monkeys (small monkeys from India often used for experimentation). Rh factor is an antigen, a substance which stimulates the production of antibodies to fight foreign invaders, such as viruses, bacteria and transplanted organs. A given individual either has the antigen already in their blood (they are Rh positive), or they don't (they are Rh negative). A patient's Rh status effects how he or she handles blood transfusions or organ transplants.
Prior to the twentieth century, blood and its function was poorly understood. In trying to solve the problem of serious blood loss from injuries, doctors tried to inject (transfuse) blood from another person or animal into the injured patient. In some cases, this worked and the patient recovered. In many more cases, however, the blood transfusion actually harmed the patient, often causing death. No one could predict which type of reaction would occur as a result of a blood transfusion. So, by the beginning of the nineteenth century, most European nations had outlawed the practice of blood transfusion.
About 1900 Austrian-American physician Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) developed an explanation for the phenomenon of blood rejection. Landsteiner found that human blood serum (the liquid portion of blood surrounding the cells) could be divided into four categories, depending on its ability to cause clotting of red blood cells. He gave these groups the names A, B, AB, and 0 based on what type of clotting antigen they had, if any.
In 1940 Landsteiner discovered another of blood factor antigen, known as Rh. This discovery resulted from Landsteiner's studies with Rhesus monkeys. Landsteiner and his colleagues found that when blood from monkeys was injected into rabbits and guinea pigs, it clotted. This was because of the presence of another antigen that the researchers had not classified before. Landsteiner called this antigen the Rh (Rhesus) factor. Researchers also showed that the factor occurs among some, but not all, humans. It is also inherited.
This site gives a clear description of
just what the Rh Factor is, but where the article goes on to discuss what it
calls " Importance of Rh Factor" it also goes on to say
"....a relatively common medical DISORDER known as erythroblastosis fetalis. In
this condition, an Rh-Negative woman who becomes pregnant with an
fetus (an unborn child) develops anti-bodies against the Rh factor in
****Rh-Negatives, women in particular as we carry the children ~ Do Not allow short-sighted authors, irrespective of their "credentials", "accreditations" or their associations convince you that you have or pass "Disorder" or "Disease" which are the terms often used when referring to Rh- women who find themselves carrying a positive child and their body begins to attack it.
We are neither Diseased nor do we have a Disorder.
But I've digressed;
Now that we know what the Rhesus Factor is, it should be much easier for us to understand Rh- and Rh+
What is Rh-Negative?
Rh- means the absence of rhesus monkey antibody in the blood.
If we all descend primarily from primates, would we not all have the same link to them?
What is Rh Positive?
Protein substance present in the red blood cells of most people, capable of inducing intense antigenic reactions. The Rh, or rhesus, factor was discovered in 1940 by K. Landsteiner and A. S. Wiener, when they observed that an injection of blood from a rhesus monkey into rabbits caused an antigenic reaction in the serum component of rabbit blood. When blood from humans was tested with the rabbit serum, the red blood cells of 85% of the humans tested agglutinated (clumped together).
[Rh+ is about 85% in the United States and about 90% worldwide]
The red blood cells of the 85% contained the same factor present in rhesus monkey blood; such blood was typed Rh positive. The blood of the remaining 15% lacked the factor and was typed Rh negative.
...When the two blood types are mingled in an Rh-Negative individual that the difficulty arises, since the Rh factor acts as an antigen in Rh-Negative persons, causing the production of antibodies. Besides the Rh factor, human red blood cells contain a large number of additional antigenic substances that have been classified into many blood group systems however, the Rh system is the only one, aside from the ABO system, that is of major importance in blood transfusions.
Rh+ means the presence of the rhesus monkey antibody in the blood.
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